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Nadar caste dna

By | 12.10.2020

The Nair include several castes and many subdivisions, not all of whom historically bore the name 'Nair'. Their internal caste behaviours and systems are markedly different between the people in the northern and southern sections of the area, although there is not very much reliable information on those inhabiting the north.

Historically, Nairs lived in large family units called tharavads that housed descendants of one common female ancestor. These family units along with their unusual marriage customs, which are no longer practiced, have been much studied. Although the detail varied from one region to the next, the main points of interest to researchers of Nair marriage customs were the existence of two particular rituals—the pre-pubertal thalikettu kalyanam and the later sambandam —and the practice of polygamy in some areas.

Some Nair women also practiced hypergamy with Nambudiri Brahmins from the Malabar region. The Nair were historically involved in military conflicts in the region. The serpent is worshipped by Nair families as a guardian of the clan. The worship of snakesa Dravidian custom, [5] is so prevalent in the area that one anthropologist notes: "In no part of the world is snake worship more general than in Kerala.

nadar caste dna

The origin of the Nair is disputed. Some people think the name itself is derived from nayakaan honorific meaning "leader of the people", while others believe it stems from the community's association with the Naga cult of serpent worship.

That work describes what is probably the Malabar coast area wherein could be found the "Nareae, who are shut in by the Capitalis range, the highest of all the mountains in India". Fuller believes it probable that the Nareae referred to the Nairs and the Capitalis range is the Western Ghats.

There are large gaps in the known early history of the Kerala region, which in the 1st-century AD is thought to have been governed by the Chera dynasty and which by the late 3rd-century AD had broken up, possibly as a consequence of a decline in trade with the Romans.

There is no evidence of Nairs in the area during this period. Inscriptions on copper-plate regarding grants of land and rights to settlements of Jewish and Christian traders, dated approximately between the 7th- and 9th-centuries AD, refer to Nair chiefs and soldiers from the Ernad, ValluvanadVenad later known as Travancore and Palghat areas.

As these inscriptions show the Nairs as witnesses to the agreements between those traders and the successors to the Cheras, the Perumalsit is probable that by this time the Nairs were vassal chieftains. Certainly by the 13th-century, some Nairs were the rulers of small kingdoms and the Perumals had disappeared. Trade with China, which had declined for some time, began to increase once more in the 13th-century and it was during this period that two small Nair kingdoms were established.

Both of these—at Kolattunad and at Vernad—contained major seaports, and they expanded by taking over the inland territory of neighbouring chieftains. Although trade with China once more went into decline in the 14th-century, it was replaced by trade with Muslim Arabs. These traders had been visiting the area for several hundred years but their activities increased to the point that a third Nair kingdom, based on the port of Calicutbecame established.

சாதி உணர்வு இருக்க வேண்டும் ,Yes I am a Nadar - Actor Sarathkumar Speech about caste Politics

There were also small kingdoms at Walluvanad and Palghat, away from the coastline. The large influx of travelers and traders to Kerala had left many early accounts of the Nairs. These descriptions were initially idealized by Europeans for its martial society, productivity, spirituality, and for its marriage practices. The Portuguese arrived in the area fromby which time the Zamorin King of Calicut had come to the fore.

nadar caste dna

Arab traders had firmly established themselves at his port and although trade still went to the ports of the other two small kingdoms it was in relatively small amounts.The study suggests a former residence of these diverse populations in same geographical area. Aravanan[ 1 — 3 ] and Sergent[ 4 ] are sure that the Dravidian speakers originated in Africa. These researchers and others use linguistic, anthropological, and archaeological evidences to support this idea.

These languages are also spoken in Iran and Russia. Upadhyaya and Upadhyaya[ 6 ] claimed that the Fulani and Dravidiacn languages are related. The Fulani live in West Africa.

Aravanan[ 23 ] and Winters[ 8 ] have pointed out that in addition to shared phenotypical features the Fulani and Dravidian tribal groups such as the Kadaro and other tribal groups such as the Irula and Pularya have the sickle cell trait.

The HLA system provides us with a means to define the relatedness of varying ethnic groups. Polymorphic DNA variants allow us to make inferences about prehistoric interactions among populations. Using HLA we can determine the relatedness of populations. The HLA system is an excellent tool in anthropology because it can determine the genetic relatedness of different populations.

A comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA

Each study was analyzed to discover the HLA genotype and allele frequency of each molecular marker among each ethnic group in the study. The Nadar is an Indian tribal group that lives in South India. The Fulani live in Africa. They are a nomadic people who are spread from North Africa. They are spread from North Africa and Chad into the Senegal region. Shankarkumar et al.

Ellis et al. The presence of shared HLA genome indicates that a genetic relationship may exist between the Nadar and Fulani peoples. This finding supported the linguistic[ 2 — 46 — 8 ] and arcaheological[ 478 ] evidences.

The present study provides some interesting findings. The finding of this study suggests that some Fulani and Nadar demonstrate an indistinguishable HLA profile. The shared HLA genomics appear to indicate a former habitat in which both groups thrived. The close relationship between the Dravidian and Fulani languages leads to the inference that these populations were formerly in close contact and the separation of the Nadar and Fulani does not date back to the original exist of AMH from Africa.

If this relationship does not date back to the exit of AMH from Africa when did this separation probably take place? There is one climatic event that had a significant impact on population movements in Africa. This event was the change of the Sahara from a fertile savanna to a harsh desert. Lal[ 16 ] and Singh[ 17 ] have discovered archaeological evidence that link the South Indian Megalitic and Indian civilizations generally to the C-Group people of Nubia.

This suggests that the ancestors of the Nadar and Fulani probably emigrated to West Africa and India after the rise of a hyperarid environment in the Saharan region and Sahel of Middle Africa. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.In the caste system throughout India, there is a considerable variation in the extent to which the units of like order in the community are segmented.

The basis of segmentation alose varies greatly from one unit to another. Segmentation for example, may be on the basis of occupation, sect, territorial baset etc But there is a considerable disagreement over the basis of segmentation among the Nadars or Shanars as the community was known in the nineteenth century, as to whether it was territorial, occupational, or of mythological or dynastic orgin.

Each was associated with a particular occupation. While the community as a whole was regarded from the out-side as "toddy-tappers", there was significant occupational diversity within the community - although this represented more a division of labour in the cultivation of the palmayra palm.

nadar caste dna

The five units or "jati" were traditionally endogamours, and while there were no commensal restrictions, each was ranked hierarchically within the Nadar Category. Four of the jati were relatively small, and it was within the largest, of the jati that the most significant distinctions were to be found.

Although lacking the sanction of mythology, the unit was sengmented into two basic and effectively endagamous group: the climbers who extracted the juice from the palmyra and the Nadans, the "Land of the Land", the aristorcrats of the community who held sway over the regions of Nadar concentration in the "Tinnevelly" now called "Thirunelveli". There were also traders within the Nadar jati. In the early nineteenth century, as transportation faciliteds opened a wider area of trade, our Nadar Merhcnats pushed north into the Ramnad, the county of the the Maravars.

By the s, they had established flourishing trade centers and threatened by a potentially hostile Maravar majority, our Nadar traders created a tightly-knit organisation, the "Uravinmurai", for their protection and advancement. People Projects Discussions Surnames. Security Code:. Log In. Geni requires JavaScript! Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni.

Join the world's largest family tree. Male Female. By continuing you accept our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Start My Family Tree! Start your family tree now Is your surname Nadar? There are already 96 users and 2, genealogy profiles with the Nadar surname on Geni. Create your Family Tree. Discover your Family History. Get Started. Perumal nadar deceased. Nadar deceased. Nadar, Puviyoor deceased. Hindu Ancestor Nadar deceased. Nadar Genealogy Projects. There were also traders within the Nadar jati In the early nineteenth century, as transportation faciliteds opened a wider area of trade, our Nadar Merhcnats pushed north into the Ramnad, the county of the the Maravars.

Follow Us Be a Fan. Disallow third-party cookies.In a video, both men and women Indian cricketers made an appeal towards all countrymen to use follow all necessary guidelines and join the 'team mask You may be ignoring certain details in your determination to see the broad sweep. But because of your carefulness and long-term read more.

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The information provided below about cookies also applies to these other tracking technologies.Valid through April 26th. The Nadar community was not a singular caste, but an assortment of sub-castes and classes of different origins, which in course of time, came under the single banner Nadar. Nadars are predominant in the southern districts of Tuticorin, Kaniyakumari, Tirunelveli and Virudhunagar.

The origin of Nadars as a social group is uncertain. Samuel Sarugunar claimed that they are the descendants of those who ruled the Cheran, Cholan and Pandyan kingdoms and that when Nayak rulers captured the Pandya country, it was divided into several Palayams divisions for each of which Palaiyakkars were appointed as rulers.

Sarugunar believes that the Nayak rulers of Tamil Nadu imposed Deshaprashtam ostracism on the ancient Pandyas Nadars to ensure that they would not rise. The traditions followed by the Nelamaikkarars and the existence of the ruins beneath the Teri palmrya forests of Tiruchendur and the Pandyan capital city of Korkai, where the Nadar population is predominant, suggest they could very well be the heirs of the Early Pandyas.

Two inscriptions at Kalladaikurichi suggest that in medieval times the Nadars served as administrators and accountants in both the Chera and Pandya countries. However, there is little evidence to support the community's claim to be descendants of the later Pandya rulers.

The identity or caste of the Pandyan kings remains a mystery. This belief, that the Nadars had been the kings of Tamil Nadu, became the dogma of the Nadar community in the 19th century. If you are a Nadar, you are welcomed to join this project.The caste system in South Asia — which rigidly separates people into high, middle and lower classes — may have been firmly entrenched by about 2, years ago, a new genetic analysis suggests.

Genetic Study Reveals Origin of India's Caste System

Researchers found that people from different genetic populations in India began mixing about 4, years ago, but the mingling stopped around 1, years ago, according to the analysis published today Aug. Combining this new genetic information with ancient textsthe results suggest that class distinctions emerged 3, to 3, years ago, and caste divisions became strict roughly two millennia ago. Though relationships between people of different social groups was once common, there was a "transformation where most groups now practice endogamy," or marry within their group, said study co-author Priya Moorjani, a geneticist at Harvard University.

Hindus in India have historically been born into one of four major castes, with myriad subdivisions within each caste. Even today, in some parts of the country, marriage outside of one's caste is forbidden and those in the outcast, or "untouchable" group are discriminated against and prohibited from participating in religious rituals. The Indian government has outlawed certain types of discrimination against the lowest classes. But when and why this system evolved has always been a bit murky, said Michael Witzel, a South Asian studies researcher at Harvard University, who was not involved in the work.

Moorjani's past research revealed that all people in India trace their heritage to two genetic groups: An ancestral North Indian group originally from the Near East and the Caucasus region, and another South Indian group that was more closely related to people on the Andaman Islands. Today, everyone in India has DNA from both groups.

To determine exactly when these ancient groups mixed, the team analyzed DNA from people who were members of 73 groups throughout the subcontinent. Aside from finding when the mixing started and stopped, the researchers also found the mixing was thorough, with even the most isolated tribes showing ancestry from both groups. Researchers aren't sure which groups of ancient people lived in India prior to 4, years ago, but Moorjani suspects the two groups lived side-by-side for centuries without intermarrying.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the groups began intermarrying during a time of great upheaval. The Indus Valley civilizationwhich spanned much of modern-day North India and Pakistan, was waning, and huge migrations were occurring across North India. The Rigveda, a nearly 3,year-old collection of hymns written in Sanskrit, a North Indian language, mentions chieftains with South Indian names.

Early on, there were distinct classes of people — the priests, the nobility and the common people — but no mention of segregation or occupational restrictions.

nadar caste dna

By about 3, years ago, the texts mention a fourth, lowest class: the Sudras. But it wasn't until about B. The study doesn't suggest that either the ancestral North or South Indian group formed the bulk of the upper or lower castes, Witzel said.Nadars are predominant in the districts of KanyakumariThoothukudiTirunelveli and Virudhunagar.

The Nadar community was not a single caste, but developed from an assortment of related subcastes, which in course of time came under the single banner Nadar. Nadar climbers were the largest subsect of today's Nadar community. A few subsects of the Nadar community, such as the Nelamaikkararswere traditionally wealthy landlords and money lenders. Historically, most Nadars were cultivators of palmyra trees and jaggery and a few were also involved in the toddy trade.

Nadar climbers had faced discrimination from major upper castes in some regions. The martial art of Varma Kalai was historically practised by the Nadars. The socio-economic development achieved by the Nadars in southern India has elicited academic interest.

The community was previously known as Shanar [4] but legally changed their name to Nadar in Nadars claim that the original name of the community was Shantror or Shandrar noble one which, in course of time, was corrupted to Shanar. Channar is a title used by the Ezhava community of Kerala. The origin of Nadars as a social group is uncertain. Hardgrave stated that the Teri palmyra forests around today's Tiruchendur must have been their original abode.

They also claimed that the Nayak rulers of Tamil Nadu imposed Deshaprashtam ostracism on the ancient Nadars to ensure that they would not rise. The traditions followed by the Nelamaikkarars and the existence of the ruins beneath the Teri palmrya forests of Tiruchendur and the Pandyan capital city of Korkaiwhere the Nadar population is predominant, suggest they could very well be the heirs of the Early Pandyas.

In the early nineteenth century, the Nadars were a community mostly engaged in the palmyra industry, including the production of toddy. They commanded high respect among the population, including from groups such as the Nadar climbers, the minority Vellalars and the Brahmins. Nadan men rode horses and their women rode in covered palanquins. Nadar climbers were also to be found in other regions of Tamil Nadu where a few palmyra trees grew.

In areas where the Nadar climber population consisted of only a few families in a village, they faced discrimination from major upper castes. They were also very caste conscious. Hardgrave conjectures that the Nadars of Southern Travancore migrated there from Tirunelveli in the 16th century after the invasion of Tirunelveli by the Raja of Travancore.

Like their Tirunelveli counterparts, the Nadars of Travancore were mostly palmyra climbers. However, a significant number of Nadars were subtenants to Nair or Vellalar landlords. These aristocratic Nadars called themselves Nadans and some of them had direct control over their lands.

The Nadans enjoyed special privileges under the Raja and claimed that they were superior to the climbers. The climbers of Travancore fared a little better than their Tirunelveli counterparts, but suffered severe social disabilities not found in Tirunelveli due to Travancore's rigid caste hierarchy.

As Swami Vivekananda stated, the Keralite hierarchy was a lunatic asylum of castes. One example of the social disabilities was that Nadar climber women were not allowed to cover their bosoms, as most of the non- Brahmin women of Kerala, to punctuate their low status. However, the Nadan women of the region were exempted from this restriction. Discontented with their social status, a large number of Nadar climbers embraced Christianity and became upwardly mobile.

Although they improved their status with the aid of Christian missionaries, the outcome of their conversion did not conform to the intent of those missionaries. Both the Christian and Hindu Nadar climber women wore the upper jacket in the manner of upper-class women and also their Tamil counterparts, in order to improve their social status.

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